Circum Polar Constellations

Let’s hope we get a clear night.  Before 7:30 pm Mars should be visible in the West, if you don’t have trees in the way.  If you can’t see it, try to find a place to look at the sky that has a clear view of the horizon. You may also be able to see Mercury and Venus very low on the horizon if there aren’t trees in the way.  If you haven’t looked for it planets yet, get out there on our next clear night.


Circum Polar Constellations

As soon as it gets good and dark look for Ursa Major, the Big Dipper. You should be looking into the North. Look for the four stars that make up the bowl of the dipper? Can you see the three or four stars that make up the dipper’s handle?  The two stars at the front of the dipper are Dubhe (on your left) and Merak (on your right).

Now that you’ve found Ursa Major you can look for the other circum polar constellations.  To find Ursa Minor (the Little Dipper) use the pointer stars Dubhe and Merak, draw an imaginary line between them and continue it 5 times further towards the North. See a star there? That’s Polaris, the North Star. It’s right at the end of the Little Dipper’s handle or the little bear’s tail. Can you see the handle and the four stars that make up the bowl?

Keep your line going West about the same distance as the line from Ursa Major to Ursa Minor.  Find the big W?  That’s Cassiopia’s throne.  If you find Cassiopia the Queen, King Cephus must be close by. Imagine the Queen sitting on her throne looking at the nearby stars to the right and you’ll see the four stars for Cephus’s head and the hat that looks like a clown hat.

Want to try another?  Look right below Ursa Minor and see if you can find the head of Draco the dragon.  It should be right on the horizon, so trees may make it impossible to find where you are. Do you see the dragon’s body? Good luck.

If you can find all five constellations, you’re half way to the number of constellations you need to learn.Every night when you go out, you should try to re-find these constellations and stars, so it becomes second nature.


Stars Science Theater


Planetarium on your computer

One of the hardest parts of the Astronomy Merit Badge is identifying at least ten constellations (requirement 4), four of them in the zodiac, and eight conspicuous stars. Here is a list of most prominent constellations and stars, which are visible in the night sky now. This is the list you should try to learn to identify for the test.


  • Ursa Major
  • Ursa Minor
  • Cassiopia
  • Cephus
  • Draco
  • Orion
  • Taurus
  • Auriga
  • Gemini
  • Canus Major
  • Canus Minor
  • Cancer
  • Leo


  • Dubhe
  • Merak
  • Polaris
  • Sirius
  • Betelgeuse
  • Bellatrix
  • Rigel
  • Saiph
  • Aldeberan
  • Capella
  • Castor
  • Pollux
  • Procyon
  • Regulus
  • Arcturus
  • Spica

You don’t have to learn all of them (see the book), but if you know all of them it will make it easier to take the test. One way to learn them is by using a computer planetarium program. One of my favorite free programs is Stellarium. It’s available in Windows, Mac and Linux versions so download it (with your parents permission of course) and play around with it for a while, to get a hang of how it works.

Stellarium a desktop planetarium

If you’re using another program adjust what you do to the program you’re using.

First thing is to set your location. If you’re using Stellarium there will be a little tool bar on the lower left side of your screen and one of the tools is a little wrench. Click on it to open the set up box. Click on the location tab and you will find several options, but the ones we’re interested in are latitude and longitude.

Do you know yours? If you don’t you can go here to find it: . To check latitude and longitude just enter your zip code. This will be your local post office as your observation point which is close enough for us. Enter your coordinates by using the little up and down arrows next to lat. and long. in Stellarium and click save, so you always start out looking at the sky the way it will in your back yard.

Now click on the Date & Time tab and check to make sure the current date and time are set. If they are incorrect, your computer may have the wrong date set so check your computer’s clock. If you want to play with the landscapes, go for it, but Guerens (the skyline you get when you first start the program) seems to be the best choice for keeping the screen fairly clean and still give us a reference for where the horizon is. Close the set up screen and now we can take a look at the sky.

If it is already night time you’re all set, if it’s day time you need to speed time up a little. Click the fast forward (>>) on the lower right of the screen two or three times. Don’t get carried away or time will really fly. When the sky gets dark hit the play (>) and time will slow down to real time. Now you should see a nice clear night sky and a few stars. If you have a scrolling mouse, try scrolling your view in and out. If you don’t have a scrolling mouse use the page up and page down keys. Too much ground, too few stars? Left click anywhere on the screen and drag your view up or down. You can also drag left and right to look to the East, West, North or South. Play around with this for a while until you get used to it.

If you can find Mars ( it will be low in the West at around 8:00 pm ), click on it and hit your space bar. What happens? Now try scrolling or using the page up and down keys. You can do this with any objects that could be seen with a telescope, I’ll give you some things to look for on another day.

Now to start learning the constellations and star names.  Try playing with the three controls on the left end of the control bar. By turning these on and off and learning the star patterns behind the graphics, you should be able to start learning the constellations.

If you are using another desktop planetarium and having trouble, you can email me with your questions as I have several other programs and I should be able to help out. When it’s clear at night go out right after sunset and see if you can apply what you’ve learned.

If you have any problems or questions, send them along.


Welcome to Astronomy Merit Badge 2017

Welcome Scouts to the 2017 session of Astronomy Merit Badge for the Knox Trail Merit Badge College. I think we’re going to have a lot of fun and hopefully you’ll learn a few things in the process. This is not an easy merit badge to earn. There are a lot of things you need to do and a lot of things to learn, but if you are prepared you should have no problem accomplishing all of the requirements.

Here’s a little information about me. I am an actor and educator. You may have met me before when I brought one of my science programs to your school. I visit schools as Galileo, the Stargazer’s Apprentice and with my Starlab traveling planetarium (where we will spend most of our time). Before beginning my school programs, I was a lecturer for ten years at the Charles Hayden Planetarium at the Museum of Science in Boston. You can learn more about me by visiting my web site at

Stars Science Theater Stalab Traveling Planetarium
A tight squeeze for the Starlab.

I hope you’ve started working on the requirements in your Boy Scout Merit Badge pamphlet already, so you don’t have to try to do everything all at once.

Learning the constellations and stars is always the hardest part.  It’s a good idea to start looking at the stars on your computer, using planetarium software. If you have your own, you can start right away. If you don’t, I recommend a program called Stellarium  hppt:// . It is free and comes in Windows, Mac and Linux versions. I’ve checked it out to make sure there is no spyware. Download it (with your parents permission, of course) and try it out. I’ll be posting a new message soon with some hints on how to use it.  You can also try using one of the many astronomy apps for Androids and iPhones to get used to finding the stars in the real night sky.

At our second session (April 1st) I will be collecting all of your prepared materials that you didn’t finish by our first session. I expect to see well written answers and explanations and clearly labeled diagrams and sketches. We also spend our second session testing your knowledge of the stars and constellations.

I’m going to try to post something new to this blog daily.  It may be something that will be helpful for earning your merit badge or it may be something that’s just interesting about Astronomy. I hope you can check in often. You can also send me any questions or make comments. If it’s clear outside at night, go out and look at the sky every night and practice finding constellations and stars.

Mike Francis